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Heart rate monitor: improving fitness and training plans

What is it?
When your pulse is racing and you’re gasping for breath, it’s a sure-fire sign that you’re exerting yourself. But a heart rate monitor tells you exactly how hard you’re working by measuring the frequency of your heartbeat as you undergo physical activity or stress. A transmitter strapped around the chest sends information to a wristwatch and gives constant updates. The device assesses your optimal heart rate, which allows for better training and overall health.

How is it changing lives?
The science of exercise can be a bit a complicated to navigate and many people can find it intimidating – especially when they’re first starting out. The beauty of the heart rate monitor is that it is a precise, accurate and simple way of staying on top of your progress. It lets you know if you are not exercising hard enough or if you’re pushing yourself too hard, and you can use this information to adjust your routines.

This device has transformed the way people engage with their chosen sport, regardless of whether they are a hobbyist or a professional. For beginners, it allows them to familiarise themselves with their optimal exertion level and stay in a zone that’s effective and safe. And for experts like Susie Wolff, it helps them compete at the top of their game and gives them that extra edge to speed ahead.

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How Should I Breathe When I Run?

f you’re not focused on how you breathe while running, you should be.

When we head out for a run, there are plenty of things to think about: how our feet land, how we bend our arms, and how quick our stride rate is. But the one thing most runners don’t think about is how to breathe.

But, you should be.

“It’s another tool,” said Budd Coates, a longtime running coach, four-time Olympic Trials qualifier, and author of Running on Air, a training manual on breathing and running. Coates has developed a breathing technique that trains runners to breath in odd, as opposed to even, patterns — breathing in for three steps and out for two, for instance. “Breathing this way allows you to train more accurately and that allows you to run faster.”

If you headed out for a run right now, you’d most likely breathe irregularly. Studies have found that inexperienced runners typically have no pattern to their breathing, while experienced runners synchronize their breathing with their stride for efficiency and pacing. The most common among experienced runners is a 2-2 pattern, i.e. breathing in for two steps and out for two steps. This is the pattern that well-known coach Jack Daniels recommends, because he believes that it maximizes the intake of oxygen.

However, said Coates, breathing in a 2-2 (or 3-3) pattern means that you’re always exhaling and inhaling when the same foot lands. He cites a study by Dennis Bramble and David Carrier, of the University of Utah, that found when exhalation always falls on the same foot it’s more likely to lead to injury, because it puts constant stress on that side of the body.

Bramble, however, says that while they may have theorized in a published article about a possible link, he never found any evidence to support the argument.

“I now think the idea rather improbable,” said Bramble.

But Coates believes that adjusting his breathing helped him combat injury. “I really was just trying to find a way to stay healthy,” said Coates, who tested a pattern to switch which side his exhalation lands on. Originally, he tried to inhale for four strides and out for three, but that was “really hard to do,” he said. Instead, he recommends that people adopt a 3-2 pattern (in and then out) when running easy and a 2-1 pattern when running faster.

Coates has been using his breathing technique for over 30 years and training people in it for 20 years. It has helped him get injured less, he believes, but “the biggest benefit is the ability to perceive exertion.”

One of the most useful things about having a set breathing pattern — whether 3-2 or 2-3 or 2-1 or even 2-2 — is that it puts you in tune with how hard you’re working. Coates has a scale he uses with his athletes where easy running correlates to an easy 3-2 breathing pattern, but eventually as they speed up the 3-2 pattern becomes impossible to maintain. At that point, they either have to switch to a 2-1 breathing pattern or slow down.

Other popular running models, such as Chi Running, also suggest an odd-numbered breathing pattern. But Bill Leach, a running coach who has served as head coach for DePaul University and the University of Montana, argues that athletes should actually be exhaling for three breaths and inhaling for two, the reverse of what Coates recommends.

“You want a disproportionate amount of time devoted to the out breath,” said Leach, because the atmospheric pressure is greater than the pressure in your lungs, which means you need to push the air out to let it rush back in.